Home
http://www.faz.net/-gqz-7o6f2
HERAUSGEGEBEN VON WERNER D'INKA, JÜRGEN KAUBE, BERTHOLD KOHLER, HOLGER STELTZNER

Veröffentlicht: 07.04.2014, 17:16 Uhr

Self-censorship in the digital age We won’t be able to recognize ourselves


Seite     1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5   |  Artikel auf einer Seite

Kopie von 28722305 © AFP Vergrößern In 1897, Sigmund Freud compared the extinguished paragraphs in newspapers to the self-censorship of our dreams

While many journalistic electrons have been spilled over the prudence, legality, and politics of e-surveillance, I’d like to ask a different set of questions, leaving to others to declaim the horror that they find in knowing that apps and agencies have stolen the “right to privacy” that surrounds or should surround an eternal human self.   What if we stepped back from the current imbroglio and asked a longer-term question, as if we were beginning to sketch a history of the present seen from outside these turbulent days. What if we ask how the surveillance and harvesting of communications has and continues to reshape the self.

The scar of white blocks

What better place to begin our question of self and censorship than with Sigmund Freud?  By 1897, Freud began to talk about censorship in the mind (a dynamic he saw as one of his most important insights) as something to be understood in terms of all-too real print censorship he saw around him.   He was not the only one to notice that the border blockers took out religiously, sexually, or politically offensive references to the illegitimacy of czars with “caviar” (black ink) or a paper-mâché overlay of glued on paper.   Censors might re-write a text to obscure their intervention. But at a certain point, the “Russian censors,” out of haste or arrogance “no longer take the trouble to conceal [the censorship] operation,” Freud maintained.  At that point, the censored texts became incomprehensible, but only because of the gaps torn from them by deletion.

So it is with apparently delirious dreams. “This censorship,” he repeated in his 1900 Interpretation of Dreams, “acts exactly like the censorship of newspapers at the Russian frontier, which allows foreign journals to fall into the hands of the readers whom it is its business to protect only after a quantity of passages have been blacked out.”

If Freud began to articulate his idea of psychic censorship in terms of the “Russian” interventions, censorship hit closer in World War I.  In his “Thoughts for the Times on War and Death,” of March-April 1915, Freud vented: “The State exacts the utmost degree of obedience and sacrifice from its citizens, but …  treats them like children by an excess of secrecy and a censorship upon news and expressions of opinion which leaves the spirits of those whose intellects it thus suppresses defenceless against every unfavorable turn of events and every sinister rumour.”   

Day after day, censors trashed Viennese newspapers, stripping away paragraphs, leaving only the scar of a white block where news had been. For its part, the postal service blackened offending lines in letters. Freud used the post to communicate, reason, and advance psychoanalytic thought, so the censor’s hand weighed on him, cutting him off from his profession while severing him from his sons at the front.

Mumble, mumble

In Freud’s psychic topography of 1915, the real, political, wartime notions of censorship figured as more-than-metaphor – we can see his own correspondence stamped twice by censors, once in Vienna and once at the border of (for example) a city in Germany.   Freud, 1915: The “psychical act” carried within the “system” of the unconscious approaches the frontier – the way a person carrying a dangerous text comes up to a frontier – with similar results:  the unconscious can be turned back on the frontier with the preconscious, and the preconscious can be blocked at the entry to the conscious.  

Vorherige Seite 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 Nächste Seite   |  Artikel auf einer Seite
 

Hier können Sie die Rechte an diesem Artikel erwerben

Weitere Empfehlungen
Zwangsrekrutierung beim IS Mordrausch und Heiratsglück

Sadisten besonders erwünscht: Von Deserteuren der islamistischen Terrormiliz hat man jetzt erfahren, wie der IS seine Leute rekrutiert. Es ist schauerlich und bizarr. Mehr Von Joseph Croitoru

30.01.2016, 13:30 Uhr | Feuilleton
Album der Woche Tord Gustavsen: What Was Said

Hörprobe: Afterglow / Sweet Melting Mehr

25.01.2016, 12:19 Uhr | Feuilleton
Angriff in Irland Bewaffnete stürmen Hotel in Dublin

Bei einem bewaffneten Angriff in Dublin soll ein Mann getötet worden sein, wie die BBC meldet. Außerdem habe es zwei Verletzte gegeben. Die Hintergründe sind noch unklar. Mehr

05.02.2016, 17:00 Uhr | Politik
Album der Woche Tord Gustavsen: What Was Said

Hörprobe: The Way You Play My Heart Mehr

19.01.2016, 11:45 Uhr | Feuilleton
Elektronikkonzerne Google überholt Apple

Apple muss sich Google vorerst geschlagen geben: Die Google-Holding Alphabet hat Quartalszahlen vorgelegt, die besser sind als erwartet. Alphabet könnte damit zum teuersten Unternehmen der Welt werden. Mehr

01.02.2016, 22:52 Uhr | Wirtschaft
Glosse

Zahlen wir bald nur noch 17,20 Euro?

Von Michael Hanfeld

Ja, wo gibt es denn sowas? Sachsen-Anhalts Ministerpräsident Reiner Haseloff verrät als erster, dass die berühmte Gebührenkommission KEF vorschlägt, den Rundfunkbeitrag zu senken. Das klingt unglaublich. Und die sächsische Regierung ist auch schon dagegen. Mehr 53 81

Abonnieren Sie den Newsletter „Literatur“